Investing is not speculation

References

[1] Graham, B. (2018). Smart investor. Valor Editions. 165.

[2] Bogle, J. (2007). The question is so important that it’s hard to think of anything else. Bogle Center for Financial Market Research.

[3] Kirby, R. (1997). You need more than numbers to measure performance. In K. Ellis and J. Vertin, The Investor’s Anthology: Original Ideas from the Industry’s Greatest Minds. John Wylie & Sons.

[4] Keynes, J. (1942). General theory of employment, interest and money. Paris: Payot.

[5] Tanus, P.J. (2021). Comment: The Fed has a simple tool it can use to curb market speculation. Source: www.cnbc.com: https://www.cnbc.com/2021/02/23/commentary-the-fed-has-a-simple-tool-it-can-deploy-to-curb-market – spec.html

[6] Article published in washington post December 4, 1986, translated by Isabelle Hausser, Cairn ISSN 0180-8214.

[7] Denzhan and partners. (2018). Overview – The social and environmental responsibility of large groups as seen by the French.

[8] Graham, B., & Dodd, D. (2015). Security analysis. Valor Editions. 128.

[9] Brandes, K. (2004). Valuable investment today. McGraw Hill. 13.

[10] Buffett, W., & Cunningham, L. (2009). The writings of Warren Buffett: The only advice given by Warren Buffett to investors and managers. Valor Editions.

[11] Bogle, J. (2008). Economy, politics and financial markets. Bogle Center for Financial Market Research.

[12] Keynes, J. (1942). General theory of employment, interest and money. Paris: Payot. 109.

[13] Bogle, J. (2008). The little book to invest with common sense. Valor Editions

[14] Shved, F. (2003). But where are the client’s yachts? Editions of the century. 52.

[15] Savall, H., Zarde, V., Peron, M., & Bonnet, M. (2016). Socially responsible capitalism exists. EMS editions

[16] Marx, H. (2020). Major market cycles. Valor Editions. 35.

[17] Giraud, G., & Renoir, K. (2012). 20 proposals for reforming capitalism. Flammarion.

[18] Le Figaro, November 11, 2010

[19] Emin, G. (2016). Understand: finance in the service of the real economy. Source: https://www.montesinos.fr: https://www.montesinos.fr/2016/01/comprendre-la-finance-au-service-de-l-economie-reelle.html

[20] financial clock. (2014). A missed opportunity to spice up “boring” finances? Position Paper on Long-Term Funding, Good Securitization and Securities Funding Initiative. Source: www.finance-watch.org: https://www.finance-watch.org/press-release/finance-watch-releases-position-paper-on-long-term-financing-securitisation-and-securities- financing/

[21] Gomez, P.-Yu. (2016). Equity risk of hypertension. Source: www.lemonde.fr: https://www.lemonde.fr/economie/article/2016/03/17/l-actionnariat-en-risque-d-hypertension_4884958_3234.html.

[22] ETF = Exchange Traded Funds. (Morningstar defines an ETF as a basket of securities that are traded on a stock exchange as individual securities. These funds can replicate a whole range of indices, such as the CAC40 in France or the EURO STOXX 50 index in Europe, or even commodities.)

[23] Rollan, S. (2018). By 2025 passive management will account for a quarter of the European market. Source: www.lesechos.fr: https://www.lesechos.fr/finance-marches/gestion-actif/la-part-de-marche-de-passive -management-could-cover-25-by-2025- 148591

[24] Gez, H., & Zahuati, J. (2014). For positive finance, because money also has virtues. Editions Chessboard Street. item 8. (foreword by Jacques Attali).

[25] Vienneno, M. (2016). Finance/Real Economy: New Disagreements. Source: www.franceculture.fr: https://www.franceculture.fr/emissions/le-billet-economique/financeeconomie-reelle-les-nouvelles-deconnexions.

[26] Short selling or short selling is the practice of betting on a falling title in order to sell a title that is expected to fall. This is a short selling technique.

[27] Trotta, D. (2008). Short sellers have been villains for 400 years. Source: www.reuters.com: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-financial-shortselling-villainspics/short-sellers-have-been-the-villain-for-400-years-idUSTRE48P7CS20080926?PageNumber= 2&virtualBrandChannel=0&sp=true

[28] Admiral Markets. (th). Short selling on the stock exchange. Source: admiralmarkets.fr: https://admiralmarkets.fr/formation/articles/base-du-forex/vente-a-decouvert-short-selling

[29] Journal of CSR. (2018). MEDEF President challenges AMF on short selling. Source: www.rse-magazine.com: https://www.rse-magazine.com/Le-president-du-MEDEF-interpelle-l-AMF-sur-les-ventes-a-decouvert_a2952.html

[30] Johnson, M. & Smith, R. (2020). The Vatican used philanthropic funds to bet on Hertz credit derivatives. Source: www.ft.com: https://www.ft.com/content/f966e8b4-945a-45d0-8391-a305b3d8f7f5

[31] Economic and Monetary Affairs Committee of the European Parliament. (2010, February 23). Hedge Fund Directive: MEPs are scrutinizing the bill. Source: https://www.europarl.europa.eu: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+IM-PRESS+20100223IPR69353+0+ DOC+XML+V0//EN

[32] Chiasson, K. (2008). Should we ban short selling? Source: www.ledevoir.com: https://www.ledevoir.com/opinion/chroniques/214045/doit-on-bannir-les-ventes-a-decouvert

[33] AMF = Financial Markets Authority